Landing on the Surface of Venus Using a Resonant Orbit

Язык труда и переводы:
УДК:
521.3
Дата публикации:
27 декабря 2021, 17:03
Категория:
Секция 05. Прикладная небесная механика и управление движением
Авторы
Zubko Vladislav Aleksandrovich
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Eismont Natan Andreevich
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Fedyaev Konstantin Sergeevich
Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
Simonov Aleksandr Vladimirovich
Lavochkin Association
Аннотация:
A new technique for expanding the achievable landing area has been demonstrated. Its essence is to use the gravitational field of Venus to transfer the spacecraft to a heliocentric orbit, resonant with the orbit of Venus with a period ratio of 1:1. The proposed study considers launch windows from 2029 to 2034. The application of the proposed technique in some examples is shown. It is demonstrated that its application makes it possible to achieve a significant expansion of achievable landing areas (over 70%) and, in some cases, to provide access to any point on the surface of Venus.
Ключевые слова:
landing, Venus, gravity assist maneuver, resonant orbit
Основной текст труда

The Russian-U.S. Venera-D project is designed to conduct long-term studies of the surface and atmosphere of Venus [1]. Under this project it is supposed to send a spacecraft (SC) to Venus, which will consist of an orbiter and a lander. The orbiter separates from the main spacecraft a few days before its approach to Venus in order to break in orbit about Venus, the parameters of the orbit are currently under development [1].

Essential part of the project «Venera-D» is to determine available landing sites on the surface of Venus [1–5]. First of all, this task appears because of impossibility to make a landing at any place on surface of Venus due to small length of launch window from Earth (about 2 weeks from optimal launch date), as well as limitation on maximum permissible overload. An additional factor that reduces the number of achievable landing sites is the low angular velocity of Venus' rotation. The simplest solution to the problem may be to extend the launch window from Earth, but this possibility is limited by the value of the characteristic velocity ΔV. Another method may be to use an intermediate near Venusian orbit for later descent to a desired location, or to use a lander that allows aerodynamic manoeuvring in the atmosphere of Venus and thereby landing at a desired location. However, all these methods require either high costs of characteristic velocity.

The feature of this study is the demonstration of a new technique for expanding the achievable areas of landing. Its essence is to use the gravitational field of Venus to transfer the spacecraft to the heliocentric orbit, resonant with the orbit of Venus with a ratio of periods of 1:1. The proposed study considers launch windows from 2029 to 2034. The application of the technique is shown on the specific example of landing in a given and inaccessible, using traditional approaches, the area on the surface of Venus (Imdr Regio). It is demonstrated that its application allows to achieve significant expansion of achievable landing areas (over 70 %) and in some cases to provide access to any point on the surface of Venus.

It should be noted that similar techniques are used for spacecraft control in the Jupiter system. For example, the Laplace-P project intends to use gravity manoeuvres near Ganymede and Callisto to switch to resonant orbits with Ganymede and subsequently reduce the relative velocity of the spacecraft near Ganymede. The Europa Clipper project involves moving to resonant orbits for the purpose of repeated encounters with Jupiter's moon Europa. 

Литература
  1. Eismont N.A., Zasova L.V., Simonov A.V., Kovalenko I.D., Gorinov D.A., Abbakumov A.S., Bober S.A. Stsenarii i traektoriya missii "Venera-D" [Scenario and trajectory of the Venus-D mission]. Vestnik NPO im. SA Lavochkina, 2018, no. 4, pp. 11–18. (In Russ.).
  2. Eismont N.A., Zubko V.A., Belyaev A.A., Zasova L.V., Gorinov D.A., Simonov A.V., Nazirov R.R., Fedyaev K.S. Gravity assists maneuver in the problem of extension accessible landing areas on the Venus surface. Open Astronomy, 2021, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 103–109.
  3. Eismont N.A., Nazirov R.R., Fedyaev K.S. et al. Resonant orbits in the problem of expanding the reachable landing areas on the surface of Venus. Astronomy Letters, 2021, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 316–330.
  4. Zubko V. A., Belyaev A.A., Eismont N.A. et al. Landing on the Venus surface with gravity assist. The Eleventh Moscow Solar System Symposium 11M-S3, Moscow, 2020, p. 377.
  5. Eismont N.A., Nazirov R.R., Fedyaev K.S. i dr. Rezonansnye orbity v zadache rasshireniya dostizhimykh oblastei posadki na poverkhnosti Venery [Resonant orbits in the problem of expanding achievable landing areas on the surface of Venus]. Pis'ma v Astronomicheskii zhurnal [Letters to the Astronomical Journal], 2021, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 352–367. (In Russ.).
  6. Simonov A.V., Kovaleva S.D., Gordienko E.S. i dr. Osobennosti proektirovaniya traektorii perspektivnykh kosmicheskikh apparatov dlya issledovaniya Venery [Features of designing trajectories of promising spacecraft for exploring Venus]. XLV Akademicheskie chteniya po kosmonavtike (Korolevskie chteniya – 2021) [XLV Academic readings on cosmonautics (Korolev Readings – 2021)]. Moscow, 2021, pp. 395–397. (In Russ.).
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