Mechanisms of Public-Private Partnership in the Implementation of Special-Purpose Transport Projects in the Creation of Ground Space Infrastructure Facilities

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23 января 2022, 22:15
Секция 08. Экономика космической деятельности
The organizational and economic problems of creating ground space infrastructure objects caused by a potential conflict of interests of government bodies and companies-providers of logistics and engineering services from the entrepreneurial sector of the economy when performing operations for the transportation and installation of large-sized and heavy-weight products, equipment, components, units and assemblies are considered. An approach is proposed to substantiate the mechanisms of public-private partnership that ensure the coordination of the economic interests of the public and private parties and the adoption of rational decisions on the implementation of special-purpose transport projects.
Ключевые слова:
public-private partnership, ground space infrastructure, special-purpose transport project, decision-making, coordination of economic interests
Основной текст труда

The relevance of the topic of the work is due to the peculiarities of the construction and modernization of critically important objects of ground space infrastructure (GSI) — cosmodromes, launch complexes, launchers, space communication complexes, centers and flight control points. These objects are distinguished by their large dimensions, technical complexity and unique design. They have constantly moving components, assemblies and mechanisms that operate under increased loads, are subject to physical wear and tear and require replacement during long-term operation.

During the construction and modernization of GSI facilities, special-purpose transport projects (SPTP) are being implemented, the specificity of which is to carry out operations for the transportation and installation of large-sized and heavy-weight products, equipment, components, units and assemblies. Due to the peculiarities of the territorial location of the GSI objects, the implementation of SPTP is associated with the need to solve a complex of technological organizational and economic problems, the use of various types of vehicles, and the organization of multimodal transportation.

New unique technological solutions that are used for the implementation of SPTP are specialized self-propelled modular vehicles and hydraulic strand portal lifting systems with the required characteristics of carrying capacity and positioning accuracy; promising dual-use air transport systems are currently being developed on the basis of cargo airships [1]. The effective implementation of such high-tech and capital-intensive projects is possible in a public-private partnership (PPP), through the use of dual-use technologies, replicating the experience of managers, transferring competencies and cross-industry maneuver with the resources of specialized providers of transport, logistics and engineering services.

PPP is a widespread form of interaction between the state (public) and private parties (public-private partnership, PPP) in world practice. PPP mechanisms provide for the conclusion of agreements between a public and a private partner in order to attract additional investments to increase the efficiency of budget financing in the creation of infrastructure facilities of significant socio-economic importance and high social value. In the Russian Federation, PPP mechanisms are regulated by the Federal Law and No. 224-FZ «On Public-Private Partnership, Municipal-Private Partnership» [2]. In accordance with the legislation, the following positions are fixed in the PPP agreement: first, technical requirements for the creation or reconstruction of an infrastructure facility; secondly, full or partial financing of works by a private partner; third, the requirements for the operation or maintenance of the facility by a private partner; fourthly, the issues of distribution of property rights and encumbrances of the object.

At the same time, the organizational and technical complexity of the SPTP in the creation of GSI objects raises a number of problems that go beyond the framework of normative regulation and pertain to the field of making economically rational management decisions. Further development and improvement of the scientific and methodological apparatus used for decision-making in conditions of multi-criteria, uncertainty and possible conflict of interests of government bodies and provider companies from the business sector of the economy is required.

In connection with the emergence of a fundamentally more complex object of research, the existing models and methods of decision-making are not perfect enough for practical application in the control of SPTP, since, firstly, they do not allow taking into account the whole complex of efficiency criteria and limitations; secondly, based on a number of subjective prerequisites, they do not allow the formation of objectively substantiated decision-making mechanisms for the management of TPIS for PPP conditions; third, admitting many results, they do not determine a practically applicable version of the functioning of these mechanisms.

One of the well-known scientific and methodological approaches to reconciling the interests of various industries is the approach proposed by T. Saaty in outlining the essence of the hierarchy analysis method [3]. However, there are critical works [4], which indicate the incorrectness of the results obtained using this method for a significant range of applied problems. A different approach to the quantitative analysis of the interests of various subjects of economic activity and the degree of their consistency is based on the construction of matrices of interests [5]. The interests of the subject S are expressed in the goals that he formulates when organizing his activities. Measurability of goals implies their quantitative expression by a set of some target indicators W(S) = {W1(S)1, W2(S)2, ..., Wn(S)n}, each of which reflects some particular goal (interest) of the subject. The interests of various subjects in the process of their interaction may coincide in whole or in part, or be opposite. The formalized procedure for constructing a matrix of interests allows for a quantitative assessment of the degree of coherence of economic entities and for correcting their particular goals when forming a general development strategy. This approach was used to substantiate the management mechanisms of strategic management of industry in the context of military-civil integration [6–8].

In the future, we will proceed from the fact that the decision-making mechanism for the management of PPP in PPP is a multi-level set of interrelated principles, rules, procedures, models, methods and techniques that allow to ensure the reasonable implementation of management decisions aimed at harmonizing the interests of public and private partners.… It is obvious that the fundamental theoretical basis for the synthesis of these mechanisms is the theory of decision making [9, 10]. It is assumed that the decision-maker has a certain system of preferences, from which he proceeds in rational actions. A decision maker's preference system is understood as a set of weakly structured representations associated with the advantages and disadvantages of the compared solutions. Such a set of ideas, as a rule, is incomplete and is formed as a result of the accumulation of experience and reflects the general strategy pursued by the decision maker. The decision maker's preferences are structured, identified and formalized only in the course of a special study aimed at building a model.

The use of the model makes it possible to conduct an objective analysis and compare alternative options, taking into account various aspects of their consequences, as well as the attitude of the decision maker to these consequences. This model approach allows decision makers to:

  • to identify and clarify his preferences;
  • choose solutions consistent with these preferences, avoiding logical errors in long and complex chains of reasoning.

In the general case, the problem of making decisions on the control of the SPTP can be represented by the following multicriteria model [11]: <t, S, K, X, f, P, r>, where t is the statement (type) of the problem; S — a set of solutions; K is a set of criteria; X is a set of scales of criteria; f — mapping of the set of feasible solutions to the set of vector estimates; P is the system of preferences of the decision-maker; r is the decision rule.

Depending on the meaningful setting of the problemt, it may be necessary, for example, to find the most preferable solution, to completely order the set of feasible solutions, to single out the set of non-dominated (non-subordinate) solutions, etc. The set S is a set of solutions that satisfy certain constraints in each problem and are considered as possible ways to achieve the set goal. Elements of the set S are called feasible solutions, decision options, alternatives, options, etc. A set of solutions is either set or formed in the course of the study. Each decision leads to a certain outcome, the consequences of which are assessed according to the criteria K1, K2, ..., Kn. The criteria are indicators that:

  • are recognized by decision makers as characteristics of the degree of achievement of subgoals of the set goal;
  • are common and measurable for all feasible solutions;
  • characterize the overall value of solutions in such a way that the decision maker has a desire to obtain the most preferable estimates for them (i. e., they cannot be presented in the form of restrictions).

For each of the criteria, a scale is set or constructed, which is a set of ordered assessments. The scales X1, X2, ..., Xn form the set X. The Cartesian product of the scales forms the set of vector estimates. Each solution is evaluated on the scales X1, X2, ..., Xn, i. e. each solution from S is assigned an n-dimensional vector estimate. Thus, the set of feasible solutions S is associated with the set of feasible vector estimates (outcomes) using the mapping f.

In the multicriteria model, the preference system is described by the set P of some sets with preference relations (for example, sets of criteria, intervals between estimates of feasible decisions of a certain type, etc.).

Decision rule r is an algorithm for ordering vector estimates based on information about the decision maker's preference system. Decision rules differ from each other both in the types of information used in them and in the information processing algorithms themselves. Therefore, the suitability of a particular decision rule for a specific problem is determined by the possibility of obtaining the necessary information, as well as the adequacy of the used information processing algorithm to the accepted and verified assumptions about the preferences of the decision maker.

Thus, the decision rule can be viewed as a decision-making method that determines the principle of comparing vector estimates and making judgments about the preference of some of them in relation to others; it can be specified as an analytical expression, an algorithm, or a verbal formulation. The decision rule should lead to such an ordering of the set of feasible solutions that corresponds to the meaningful formulation of the problem and is consistent with the assumptions made in the model and the system of preferences of the decision maker. The assumptions made include the assumptions about the completeness of the set of decisions and the set of criteria, about the unambiguity of the correspondence of the set of scales to the set of criteria, about the sufficient accuracy of evaluating decisions on the scales of criteria, about the system of preferences, the possibilities of identifying it, etc. Depending on the assumptions made, as well as on the goals and preferences of the decision maker, various decision rules can be built.

The outlined approach will make it possible to substantiate economically rational PPP mechanisms that ensure the coordination of the interests of the public and private partners in the implementation of SPTP for the creation of GSI facilities. Further practical implementation and development of algorithmic support for PPP mechanisms are possible using the mathematical apparatus of fuzzy sets and cooperative game modeling.

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