Analysis of the Human Resources Deficit in the Russian Aerospace Industry: Problems and their Solutions

Язык труда и переводы:
УДК:
338.108
Дата публикации:
24 января 2022, 00:03
Категория:
Секция 08. Экономика космической деятельности
Аннотация:
The ability to produce competitive aerospace products, along with other machinery sectors of the military-industrial complex, plays a key role in national military and economic stability. The aerospace industry in Russia is one of the most advanced mechanical engineering industries, which performance determines the international prestige of the country. In order to increase the products' competitiveness level in this sphere of economy, it is necessary both to develop high technologies intensively, and to find the main driver of progress — qualified personnel with the necessary competences. Thus, this article reviews one of the key problems of the Russian aerospace industry - the deficit of qualified personnel. It is proposed to consider the workforce of industry enterprises as a strategic asset of the company, whose performance determines the effectiveness of material and financial resources of the organization.
Ключевые слова:
human capacity, company personnel, competitiveness, personnel deficit, strategic assets of the company
Основной текст труда

The field of production of innovative technologies for the space industry is one of the macroeconomic sectors of the Russian Federation economy. At present, Russian Federation still holds a leading position in the production of rocket carriers, but its monopoly on manned space flights was almost shattered with the launch of commercial spacecraft Crew Dragon of the American company SpaceX. For Russia, the real situation turned out to be much worse than predicted in the 2017 reports of the Rocket and Space Corporation «RKK Energia» — the level of competition in the world market of space services in 2021 increased significantly due to the inclusion in the competition not only the United States, but also such countries as India and China [1].

One of the pillars of modern Russian space technology can legitimately be considered the legacy of space science, left by the USSR to its successor in the face of the Russian Federation. Until recently, the presence of Soviet aerospace school technologies was a sufficient condition for retaining the competition in the global market, but today it is impossible to succeed without the creation of new advanced space technologies. However, the low efficiency and weak dynamics of this sector development is contributed by the critical deficit of engineering school specialists both in the general industry and in the space branch. It should be noted that such situation in Russia has occurred even despite the fact that our country is the third in the world by the number of annually graduated specialists in engineering after China and India [2].

According to the analytical agency Tadviser, the number of working-age population in Russia is rapidly decreasing [3]. The forecast for a further decline in this decrease, published by the international financial organization World Bank, in fact turned out to be just slightly better than expected. The situation is further aggravated by a significant age gap between the specialists of the space engineering school, caused by the degradation of this branch of industry in the 90's of the XX century. The enterprises of the industry are trying to solve this problem through the programs of purpose-made enrollment of students of higher technical universities. However, the analysis of that enrollments in the leading technical universities shows an annual decrease in the entrance points with a simultaneous reduction in the number of budgetary places, which probably indicates low competition and a decline in demand for these programs among young people.

Thus, one of the most important urgent tasks for space industry companies is to search and develop human resources in order to improve efficiency and retain leading positions in the global market. According to the world practice the most valuable thing for the company is the efficiency of its human resources. Indeed, without competent specialists, who are able to efficiently work with high potential technologies of the Soviet school, the further development of our aerospace branch is impossible.

The solution of this problem is contained in a number of objectives, prescribed in the list of initiatives of Russia's socio-economic development program for the period till the year 2030, and in particular in the initiative on creation of advanced engineering schools, who will implement new programs of advanced training of engineering personnel [4]. However, in addition, it is necessary to expand and improve the methods and approaches applied by industry organizations to engineering workforce development. In particular, it is necessary to develop such activities in human capital management of the company as profiling of employees' competences, personnel development planning (including strategic planning), as well as performance management and adaptation at the workplace.

In the world practice human capital is usually referred to as non-material assets and called human assets, although this approach is not appreciated in Russian practice. Nevertheless, each employee, along with material and non-material assets, is involved in the process of forming the value of the organization, and thus represents a certain value for the company. The creation of a mechanism for maximizing the utility of employees will significantly reduce the risks of not achieving the strategic objectives of the company and will allow the company to focus on creating new, highly effective technologies to strengthen Russia's position in the global market.

Литература
  1. Ezhekvartal'nyi otchet PAO "RKK "Energiya" za 4 kvartal 2017 g. [Quarterly report of PJSC RSC Energia for the 4th quarter of 2017]. Ofitsial'nyi sait PAO "RKK "Energiya" [Official website of PJSC RSC Energia]. Available T: https://www.energia.ru/ru/disclose/qdocs/qrpt_2017-4.pdf (accessed December 17, 2021). (In Russ.).
  2. Vlasenko A.V., Patsuk O.V., Kleshnina I.A., Torgashin A.S., Kozlovskaya E.B. Problemy defitsita kvalifitsirovannykh kadrov inzhenerno-tekhnicheskikh spetsial'nostei v otechestvennoi raketno-kosmicheskoi otrasli [Problems of shortage of qualified personnel of engineering and technical specialties in the domestic rocket and space industry]. Mezhdunarodnyi nauchno-issledovatel'skii zhurnal [International Research Journal], 2021, no. 2-2 (104), pp. 23–27. Available at: https://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/problemy-defitsita-kvalifitsirovannyh-kadrov-inzhenerno-tehnicheskih-spetsialnostey-v-otechestvennoy-raketno-kosmicheskoy-otrasli (accessed December 18? 2021)/ (In Russ.).
  3. Analiz rynka truda Rossii 2021 [Analysis of the Russian labor market 2021]. Sait analiticheskogo agentstva Tadviser [Website of the analytical agency Tadviser]. Available at: https://www.tadviser.ru/a/162197 (accessed December 18, 2021). (In Russ.).
  4. Perechen' initsiativ sotsial'no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya do 2030 g. [List of initiatives of socio-economic development until 2030]. Sait Pravitel'stva Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Website of the Government of the Russian Federation]. Available at: http://static.government.ru/media/files/zysfY960208YoOGVHbs7fscvLyNwU5tT.pdf (accessed December 18, 2021). (In Russ.).
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