Principles of Construction and Applications of Small-Sized Spacecraft Based on Unified Space Platforms

Язык труда и переводы:
УДК:
629.7
Дата публикации:
22 января 2022, 19:54
Категория:
Секция 02. Летательные аппараты. Проектирование и конструкция
Авторы
Tuzikov Sergey Anatoljevich
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Yoon Sung Wook
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Kulkov Vladimir Mikhailovich
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Egorov Yuri Grigoryevich
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Firsyuk Sergey Olegovitch
Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University)
Аннотация:
The variants of constructing small-sized spacecraft (SS) based on a unified space platform (USP) are analyzed, the areas of rational use of the USP as part of the SS for solving a wide range of tasks, including monitoring of the Arctic regions, are investigated. Methodological approaches for providing design analysis of the UCP circuit solutions for the remote sensing control system are given. The actual problem of choosing the standard size of the USP, evaluating the effectiveness of its use, taking into account its necessary modernization for a specific payload, is investigated. The relevance of the research is related to the need to create competitive variants of small-sized spacecraft based on a unified space platform designed to provide monitoring of high-latitude regions using the remote sensing of the Earth SS system.
Ключевые слова:
project analysis, spacecraft, small-size spacecraft, unified space platform, remote sensing of the Earth, design appearance of a small spacecraft
Основной текст труда

Due to the variety of tasks of using SS, on the one hand, and a wide range of SS in terms of mass, power and size, on the other hand, it is urgent to create a family of small USP based on modern microsatellite technologies.

USP are the basic modules of spacecraft created using the principles of deep unification of onboard systems based on modern technical and design-technological solutions. The use of USP contributes to the reduction of the nomenclature of the developed SS and their on-board systems, reducing the cost of creating and operating SS based on them, reducing the time of their development. Currently, there are a number of space platforms that meet the requirements of various target loads in terms of weight and size characteristics, energy resource, space operation conditions, reliability and cost [1].

The relevance of the research carried out within the framework of the project is connected with the need to create competitive variants of SS based on a USP designed to monitor the Arctic regions using the remote sensing of the Earth and develop technology for controlling them at various stages of orbital operation.

The main design feature of the USP is modularity, which ensures high manufacturability of assembly and testing of spacecraft created on the basis of a USP.

The use of USP has a number of significant advantages in comparison with individually designed devices:

  • reduction of design costs due to serial production and the possibility of distributing the cost of designing the platform among all satellites of the series;
  • increasing the reliability of satellites due to repeated testing of their systems;
  • reduction of the satellite production time, in addition, the manufacturers of the USP guarantee the production time.

In the design of the remote sensing of the Earth SS, the following principles of the construction of the USP are combined:

  • application with minimal changes of reliable and well-developed design and service systems;
  • wide possibilities for varying the composition, weight and size characteristics and energy consumption of target devices;
  • allocation of a significant resource for solving additional scientific and commercial tasks;
  • taking into account all-Russian and global trends in spacecraft design and the introduction of new achievements in the field of construction materials, sensors, technologies, computer equipment, software, etc.;
  • testing in space (during the next launches of the remote sensing of the Earth SS) of promising improvements to the internal blocks and elements of the space platform systems while maintaining its basic composition.

One of the directions of the development of a parametric series of USP for the entire spectrum of tasks of target application is the formation of design methods for the construction of small space platforms with an electric rocket propulsion system [2]. The range of USP standard sizes is based on basic prototypes — USP for remote sensing SS, communications, testing of space technologies, conducting scientific and applied research in space [3].

The modern unification of the USP equipment allows creating a whole range of types of SS for various purposes on the basis of one platform [4]. A single on-board complex, functionally combining all on-board systems in its composition, easily adapts to the requirements of the payload (target) load installed on a specific SS. There is an urgent problem of choosing the standard size of the UCP, evaluating the effectiveness of its use, taking into account its necessary modernization for a specific payload.

The use of modern technologies in the implementation of elements of on-board special and supporting equipment of the SS and their unification make it possible to reduce the development time several times and reduce financial costs for the implementation of space projects.

Such projects should include the task of monitoring and forecasting the ice situation in the Arctic regions using the SS based on a USP. SS equipped with small-sized systems for monitoring the Earth's surface can be an effective and competitive means of remote sensing SS for a wide range of consumers of space information.

An urgent problem is the development of preferred options for the construction of SS based on a USP, as well as methodological support for the design analysis of schematic solutions for the implementation of the functioning of the remote sensing of the Earth SS and methods of applying control technology for a wide range of orbital operations to solve a set of environmental management tasks of remote sensing of the Earth in high-latitude areas of the Earth (in the interests of ice exploration and for oceanographic and oceanological research, highly operational monitoring of the ice situation, etc.).

Литература
  1. Blinov V.N., Ivanov N.N., Sechenov Yu.N., Shalai V.V. Malye kosmicheskie apparaty. Kn. 3. Minisputniki. Unifitsirovannye kosmicheskie platformy dlya malykh kosmicheskikh apparatov: sprav. posobie [Small spacecraft. Book 3. Minisatellites. Unified space platforms for small spacecraft: reference. stipend]. Omsk, Izd-vo OmGTU Publ., 2010, 348 p. (In Russ.).
  2. Kul'kov V.M. Issledovanie proektnykh parametrov i analiz effektivnosti primeneniya unifitsirovannykh platform s elektroraketnymi dvigatelyami v sostave malykh kosmicheskikh apparatov [Research of design parameters and analysis of the effectiveness of the use of unified platforms with electric rocket engines as part of small spacecraft]. Vestnik Moskovskogo aviatsionnogo instituta [Bulletin of the Moscow Aviation Institute], 2012, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 18–28. (In Russ.).
  3. Kul'kov V.M. Postroenie kompleksa proektnykh modelei dlya parametricheskogo analiza malykh kosmicheskikh apparatov s elektroraketnymi dvigatelyami [Construction of a complex of design models for parametric analysis of small spacecraft with electric rocket engines]. Vestnik Moskovskogo aviatsionnogo instituta [ Bulletin of the Moscow Aviation Institute], 2012, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 44–55. (In Russ.).
  4. Kul'kov V.M., Shakhanov A.E., Egorov Yu.G., Krainov A.M., El'nikov R.V. K voprosu proektirovaniya malykh kosmicheskikh apparatov s elektroraketnoi dvigatel'noi ustanovkoi dlya issledovaniya malykh tel Solnechnoi sistemy [On the issue of designing small spacecraft with an electric propulsion system for the study of small bodies of the Solar system]. Vestnik NPO im. S.A. Lavochkina [Bulletin of Lavochkin Association], 2015, no. 1 (27), pp. 48–54. (In Russ.).
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