Command and Measurement Complex when Creating and the Management of Space Navigation Systems

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Дата публикации:
21 января 2023, 23:39
Секция 01. Пионеры освоения космического пространства. История ракетно-космической науки и техники
Скрыль Олег Алексеевич
Межрегиональная общественная организация "Ветераны КИК"
The issues of creation and management features of navigation space systems of the period of the 1960s-1970s are considered. The role of military specialists in the development of the command and measurement complex (CMC) and the improvement of spacecraft control is shown. The main purpose of the work is to improve the accuracy of navigation location definitions in the interests of the Armed Forces and the national economy.
Ключевые слова:
flight design tests, KIK, history of rockets and satellites, satellite
Основной текст труда


In the early 1950s, the Leningrad Military Air Academy named after A.F.Mozhaisky conducted research on the possibility of using radio astronomy methods for aircraft navigation. The work was supervised by Professor V.S. Shebshaevich. On the basis of these works, in October and December 1957, a scientifically sound proposal was announced on the use of the satellite for solving navigation problems. The scientific foundations of satellite radio navigation systems were significantly developed as a result of research on the topic of research «Sputnik» (1958-1959). The main attention was paid to the accuracy of navigation definitions, ensuring globality, round-the-clock application regardless of weather conditions. The work carried out made it possible to proceed in 1963 to the experimental design development of the first domestic combined navigation-connected low-orbit system «Cyclone». The development and testing of the  «Cyclone» space navigation and communication system and the means of the command and measurement complex (KMC) were carried out on the basis of the Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers of 11.09.1964. The KMC Center was responsible for testing and organizing the operation of the ground complex, ballistic support and control of the spacecraft in flight. To perform these tasks, multifunctional «Baza-U» systems were deployed in Kolpashevo, Shchelkovo and Ussuriysk, which controlled the spasecrafts onboard equipment, carried out trajectory measurements, telemetry control of onboard systems, carried out reconciliation and correction of the onboard time scale, received ephemeris-program information from the Center and transmitted it. The «Base-U» system was the first to implement the transmission, storage and processing of large volumes of special information on board, and a high-precision onboard time scale was implemented. Flight design tests (FDT) were conducted in the period from 23.11.1967 to 15.07.1970. Military specialists, along with developers, play a significant role in the development of the “Cyclone” system. In 1966, the department of the KMC Center was formed, which conducted the preparation and conduct of the FDT. During the FDT, four “Cyclone” spacecraft were withdrawn and taken over. The accuracy of location determination was brought to 100-150 meters. The role of the specialists of the KMC Center, the results of the FDT and the prospects for the development of the system are shown.

In 1971, the “Cyclone” space system was put into trial operation. In total, 25 “Cyclone” spacecraft were withdrawn during the operation of the system.

The experience gained during the creation, development and operation of the “Cyclone” system allowed us to start developing the “Cyclone-B” (“Parus”) system with increased technical and operational characteristics back in 1967.

The development and testing of the «Parus» system was carried out in compliance with the Resolutions of the USSR Council of Ministers of 21.07.1967 and 30.12.1971. The FDT was carried out by the same specialists of the KMC Center who conducted tests of the “Cyclone” system. To control the spacecraft of the “Parus” system, “Taman-Baza-DM” complexes were deployed at six command and measurement points of the KMC Center. Tests of the system were carried out in the period from 26.12.1974 to 20.08.1975. During the FDT, three spacecraft were launched into orbit. According to the test results, the system was adopted in 1976. Over a long period of operation, 86 spacecraft of the “Parus” system were withdrawn.

The “Cyclone’ and “Parus” systems could not solve the problem of the globality of the mass consumer, as they had significant limitations of continuous operation and the resource of the spacecraft onboard equipment. Therefore, in accordance with the Resolution of the USSR Council of Ministers of 12.05.1974, on the basis of the “Parus” system, the development of the “Cicada” space navigation system began, which was a stage in the creation of a unified navigation and geodetic system. The system consisted of 4 spacecraft, the composition of the control complex remained unchanged. Tests of the system were carried out in the period from 12.11.1976 to October 1978. The system was put into operation on 20.11.1979 and operated until 2004.

In 1977, within the framework of international cooperation, the development and creation of a space rescue system for aircraft and ships in distress began. The system consisted of two spacecraft groups: 2-3 spacecraft CAPCAT (USA) and 2-3 spacecraft COSPAS – «Nadezhda ». The “Nadezhda’ spacecraft were developed on the basis of the “Cicada” spacecraft, on which the equipment of the rescue radio complex (RRC) was additionally installed.

The basis for the development and creation of the «Nadezhda » system were the Resolutions of the USSR Council of Ministers of 26.01.1977 and of 12.01.1978. The FDT of the system was carried out from 1982 to 1989 on three spacecrafts. Spacecraft «Nadezhda-403» it was used for its intended purpose until 18.07.2007.

The work carried out during the creation, testing and operation of the space systems «Cyclone», «Parus», «Cicada», «Nadezhda» served as a precursor to the creation of a Unified space navigation system GLONASS. The resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, issued in December 1976, legitimized the work of the industry enterprises and the Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense of the USSR to create a new system and determined the procedure for its development and testing.

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